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FD vs Mutual Funds – Where to Invest Your Hard-Earned Money
When it comes to investing your hard-earned money, there are several options available to you. The variety of options makes it highly important to do your research and make informed decisions regarding investments that are aligned to your financial objectives. Fixed Deposits (FDs) and Mutual Funds are two prominent investment instruments, each with their characteristics. Let us walk you through the key differences between mutual funds and fixed deposits, and highlight their prominent attributes to help you make a knowledge-based choice to achieve your financial goals.
Decoding Fixed Deposits
Decoding Fixed Deposits
Fixed Deposits, commonly known as FDs, are a simple and straightforward financial product, usually offered by banks and non-banking financial companies (NBFCs). The concept is rather simple – you deposit a lump sum amount for a predetermined period at an already defined interest rate. FDs offer a fixed and steady income making it a reliable avenue for you to park your funds and earn interest over time with minimal influence of the prevalent market movements, which is a big difference between FDs and mutual funds.
For example, imagine you have invested ₹1,00,000 in an FD for a period of one year at an interest rate of 7% per annum. The FD calculation formula is: Maturity Value = P + (P x r x t)/100
In our example;
P (Principal Amount) is ₹1,00,000,
T (the investment tenure) is 1 year, and
R (the interest rate) is 5%.
In other words, (1,00,00 x 1 X 5) = ₹5,000. This is your interest amount. Add it to the principal amount and at the end of the tenure, your Fixed Deposit total maturity value will be ₹1,05,000.
The Pros of Investing in FDs
Assured Returns:The hallmark of Fixed Deposits is their unwavering promise of predictable returns. This predictability can be especially comforting in uncertain economic times.
Mitigating Risks:Fixed Deposits are renowned for their low-risk nature. They provide a safe haven for your funds, shielded from the fluctuations of the stock market.
Attractive Interest Rates:Unlike standard savings accounts, Fixed Deposits often offer higher interest rates, making your money work harder for you.
Flexibility and Tenure Options:Fixed Deposits grant you the flexibility to choose the tenure that aligns with your financial goals, whether it's a few months, a year, or several years.
Tax Savings Through Special FDs:Certain Fixed Deposits, known as tax-saving FDs, offer the dual advantage of guaranteed returns and tax benefits under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act. In the FD vs mutual funds debate, this is one area where FDs traditionally scored highly. However, as you will see, a certain type of mutual fund can also help you save tax under Section 80C.
Preserved Liquidity:While Fixed Deposits are less liquid compared to some investments, they do offer a degree of liquidity. In case of emergencies, you can access your funds, albeit with potential penalties.
The Risks in FD Investments
While Fixed Deposits are renowned for their stability, it's essential to recognize the potential risks they entail. Understanding these risks can empower you to make a well-informed investment decision.
Interest Rate Risk:Fixed Deposits lock in your funds at a predetermined interest rate. If market interest rates rise during your FD tenure, you may miss out on potentially higher returns available elsewhere.
Inflation Risk:FDs might not always keep pace with inflation. As the cost of living rises, the purchasing power of your fixed returns could diminish over time.
Liquidity Risk:While some level of liquidity exists, premature withdrawal from an FD often incurs penalties, which can erode your expected returns.
Opportunity Cost:By committing your funds to an FD, you might miss out on investment opportunities that could yield higher returns over the long term.
Taxation Impact:The interest earned from FDs is generally taxable, which can impact your post-tax returns, especially for individuals in higher tax brackets.
Understanding Mutual Funds
Mutual fund vs fixed deposit is a frequently discussed topic among investors. Contrary to FDs, Mutual Funds pool funds from a variety of investors to invest in diverse forms of securities which are then professionally managed by expert fund managers. You buy units corresponding to your initial investment which you can redeem based on prevalent factors and your own financial requirements. You also get the freedom to invest a lump sum amount or smaller amounts regularly, through the systematic investment plan (SIP) mode. The cornerstone of mutual funds investment is the power of compounding. Let us see it in action with an example.
Suppose you invest ₹50,000 in an Equity Mutual Fund with an NAV (net asset value per unit) of ₹10. This means you will receive 5000 units. Over the course of a year, the value of the Mutual Fund's underlying assets appreciates, leading to an increase in its NAV to ₹12. At the end of the year, if you decide to redeem your investment, the value of your investment would be 500 units * 12 = ₹60,000 giving you a net capital gain of ₹10,000 (60,000 - 50,000) over the year.
The Pros of Investing in Mutual Funds
Potential for Returns:The allure of Mutual Funds lies in their capacity to yield substantial returns, potentially surpassing conventional savings avenues.
Battle with Inflation:In the ever-changing landscape of economics, Mutual Funds strive to outpace inflation, preserving your purchasing power.
Embracing Diversification:By virtue of their diverse asset allocation, Mutual Funds mitigate risk by spreading investments across different instruments.
Guided by Experts:Seasoned fund managers helm investment decisions, leveraging their expertise to optimise returns while minimising risks.
Liquidity Lever:Mutual Funds bestow a higher degree of liquidity, enabling you to buy or sell units as per your evolving needs.
Tax Benefits:Investments in Equity-Linked Savings Scheme (ELSS) funds can help you save up to ₹1.5 Lakhs each financial year, under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act of India.
The Risks in FD Investments
Market Risk:Mutual Fund returns are influenced by the performance of the underlying assets. Market fluctuations can lead to volatility and potential losses.
Expense Ratio Impact:Mutual Funds incur expenses that are borne by investors through the expense ratio. High expense ratios can eat into your returns over time.
Exit Load:Some Mutual Funds charge an exit load if you redeem your units before a specified period. This can impact your liquidity and overall returns.
Tax Implications:Gains from Mutual Funds may be subject to capital gains tax. Different fund types have varying tax implications.
FD or Mutual Fund: What’s Right For You?
The answer to the perennially asked question, ‘Which is better FD or Mutual Fund?’, entirely depends on individual factors such as your financial objectives, investment horizon, and risk tolerance. A comprehensive analysis reveals an array of factors to consider, culminating in an informed decision that aligns with your goals. Here is a quick synopsis of the key difference between FDs and mutual funds:
|Predictable and fixed
|Variable and potential for higher growth
|Moderate to high, subject to fund type
|Not applicable (single investment)
|Yes, diversified across multiple assets
|Not applicable (self-managed)
|Yes, managed by seasoned professionals
|Available in some instances (e.g. tax-saving FDs)
|Available in select funds (e.g. ELSS)
|Short to medium term
|Medium to long term
|High, with diverse fund options
Summing it Up
As you must have realised by now, in the Mutual Funds vs Fixed Deposits discussion, there's no one-size-fits-all solution. Fixed Deposits provide security and stable returns, making them ideal for risk-averse investors and those with short-term goals. On the other hand, Mutual Funds offer the potential for higher returns, diversification, and professional management, catering to long-term investors seeking growth.
Before making a decision, carefully assess your financial goals, risk appetite, and investment horizon. You can even consider a blend of both options to strike a balance between safety and growth. Always remember, it's crucial to stay informed and seek professional advice if needed before making any investment choices